Churches of Christ: Namwianga Mission

Churches of Christ

Namwianga Mission

Namwianga Mission was founded near Kaloma, Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) by Churches of Christ missionaries Dow and Helen (Alice) Merritt in 1932 (the Merritt’s first arrived in 1926). Encompassing 6,000 acres, the mission originally consisted of three separate farms that were consolidated during the 1940s and 1950s.

The mission began primary schools in the 1930s to promote the Christian faith and to teach students to read the Bible. In the 1960s, Dr. George Benson, along with Dow Merritt, raised enough money to build a high school, currently the Namwianga Christian Secondary School. In the early 1990s, Namwianga Mission partnered with the University of Zambia to establish George Benson Christian College (named in Dr. Benson’s honor), which is a three-year college that trains students to teach at the secondary level.

Other facilities include the Namwianga Mission Hospital (formerly Namwianga Zonal Health Center) treating more than 10,000 patients per year, farm, radio station, and “The Haven” in-home orphan care. The orphanage operates four homes that support infants, toddlers, children with special needs and the fourth home, named “Eric’s House, for older boys.

In addition to the Merritt’s, early missionaries at Namwianga include Mrs. Ray Lawyer, Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Shewmaker, Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Hobby, Myrtle Rowe, and Alva and Margaret Rees. Dow Merritt’s son, Roy, together with his wife Kathi, returned to Namwianga Mission sometime in 1968-69 to teach at the high school and have continued to serve at the mission over many years.

Namwianga Mission is currently operated by Zambia Christian College, which goes by the name Zambia Mission Fund. The mission has been supported as a “permanently funded work” of the Prescott Church of Christ church in Texas, since 2006.


  • George Benson Christian College
  • Namwianga Christian Secondary School
  • Namwianga Mission Hospital
  • The Haven In-Home Orphan Care


  • Mark Loomis


Roman Catholic Church: Archdiocese of Lusaka

Roman Catholic Church

Archdiocese of Lusaka

The Vicariate Apostolic of Lusaka was elevated to an archdiocese on 25 April 1959. The first Archbishop was Adam Kozłowiecki (1911-2007) of the Society of Jesus.



Livingstone Museum

Livingstone Museum


The Livingstone Museum is the largest and the oldest museum in Zambia, established in the 1934 as the David Livingstone Memorial Museum and was located in the old Magistrate’s Court building.

In 1937 it moved to the United Services Club building. In 1939, The Rhodes-Livingstone Institute was started and incorporated with the David Livingstone Memorial Museum. In 1939 the collection was expanded to include relics of Cecil Rhodes and the British South African Company. In 1946, the Museum and the Institute were separated and the Museum’s name changed to the ‘Rhodes-Livingstone Museum’.

In 1945, fund-raising for a Museum building started. Work on the building started in 1949 and was completed in 1950. It was designed by Major W J Roberts in Spanish style. Jock Millar, former mayor of Livingstone, requested that Harry Susman donate a ‘four-faced’ tower clock to the museum, but before it was unveiled in the museum, Susman died. The museum was officially opened in 1951.

In 1956 the museum was a trustee, along with National Monuments Commission of Northern Rhodesia (later the National Museums Board) and the Wenner-Gren Foundation, of the excavation of the Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Site.

In 1960 the museum recreated villages from five ethnic groups to give visitors a sense of traditional tribal life and to present the “way of life during the bronze and iron age.” In 1963 a research wing was added to the museum building to provide workspace and storage rooms for Archaeology, Ethnography and History. In 1966 a Natural History Wing was added. The name of the Museum changed from the Rhodes-Livingstone Museum to its present name of the Livingstone Museum in 1966.

The museum started publishing Occasional Papers from 1948 but published the 16 papers in 1967 as a new series titled Zambian Museum Papers, based on extensive research of Zambia’s prehistory, history, ethnography and natural history. These papers were authored by specialists in each field. The papers provide substantial information on each of the large number of exhibits systematically displayed in the museum with labels.

In 2003 the buildings were renovated with funds from the European Union. Over the years, the museum has been a trustee of numerous archaeological expeditions in Zambia.  In 2005, a statue of David Livingstone was erected in front of the museum in memory as was a statue of Emil Holub, a noted Czech doctor, explorer, cartographer, and ethnographer who made the first map of the Victoria Falls region.

The museum is laid out in five galleries namely, the Archaeology gallery, the Ethnographic gallery, the History gallery, the Art gallery and Livingstone gallery.



1948 – Migrant Labour Act

1948 – Migrant Labour Act

The 1948 Migrant Labour Act entrenched agreements between Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland that dated back as early as 1947. The original agreement was to included South Africa but they later withdrew from the scheme.

The Act allowed employers to withhold part of the wages due to migrant employees. The sums withheld were used to buy Wage Stamps ( also know as employment stamps) that were then affixed to workbooks. The stamps were valued at five shillings and were available at various convenient centres or Post Offices to be purchased by employers. By 1953, 23,190 a month had been issued to Nyasaland workers, and 6,708 a month to Northern Rhodesia workers.

Part of the value purchased was then remitted to the employee upon returning home, or to their families. The employee would detach a remittance sheet and either themselves or their families could present this sheet to the Native Commissioner who would pay the value of the sheet after the employee had worked four months in Southern Rhodesia.

Although popular in Southern Rhodesia & Nyasaland, the scheme was unpopular in Northern Rhodesia with both employers and workers. In 1960 the Act was duly repealed as Southern Rhodesia was in an over-supply of labour.

Wage Stamps



  • The Balance of Payments of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1945-1954 – Alexander George Irvine
  • The Statute Law of Southern Rhodesia 1950
  • Labour Export Policy in the Development of Southern Africa – Bill Paton

Presentation: Wage Stamp (NR)

Northern Rhodesia

Wage Stamp (NR)

Wage Stamp (NR)

Northern Rhodesia

Wage Stamp (NR)


  • Date of Issue: 1948
  • Date Withdrawn:
  • Date Invalidated:
  • Designer: 
  • Printer: Bradbury Wilkinson
  • Process:
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Production Details

Commercial Usage


Northern Rhodesia: Legislative Council Election – G291

Northern Rhodesia

Legislative Council Election – G291


  • Date of Issue: October 1958
  • Dept: Legislative Council
  • Reqn.: G291
  • Printer: Government Printer
  • Paper:
  • Quantity: 6,000


1962 – Northern Rhodesia Legislative Council Election

Northern Rhodesia Legislative Council Election

30 October 1962

The Northern Rhodesia Legislative Council election was on 30 October 1962, with by-elections for several seats held on 10 December. Although the United Federal Party won the most seats in the Legislative Council, and Northern Rhodesian African National Congress leader Harry Nkumbula had made a secret electoral pact with the UFP, Nkumbula decided to form a government with the United National Independence Party.

The elections were carried out under the 15-15-15 system, with 15 seats elected by an upper roll, 15 seats by a lower roll and 15 seats by the national roll; the national roll seats consisted of four ‘reserved’ two-seat constituencies returning an African and a European member; three two-member ‘open’ constituencies that would return two members of any race, and one nationwide constituency for Asians.

The initial plan for the reserved and open national roll seats was that candidates would have to receive at least 15% of the vote from both the upper and lower rolls to be elected. However, this was fiercely opposed by Prime Minister of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Roy Welensky, as the lower roll was likely to be entirely black, giving his UFP little chance of winning seats. The system was later changed to require candidates to receive at least 10% of the vote from each race, and at least 20% of the vote from either the upper or lower roll.

To qualify for the upper roll, voters had to have an income of at least £720 or own at least £1,500 of immovable property. This was reduced to £480/£1,000 for those with a full primary education and £300/£1,000 for those with at least four years of secondary education. Several people were automatically allowed to register as upper roll voters, including chiefs, hereditary councillors, members of native authorities and courts, municipal councils, township housing boards and area housing boards, ministers of religion, members of certain religions with at least two years of secondary education, pensioners, university graduates, holders of an award from the Queen, those with a letter of exemption under the African Exemption Ordinance dated prior to 1 July 1961, or be the wife of a qualified upper roll voter (in polygamous marriages, only the senior wife qualified).

Lower roll voters had to have an income of at least £120 or own immovable property worth at least £250. Certain other people were automatically entitled to be a lower roll voter, including tribal councillors, members of native authorities and courts, municipal councils, township housing boards and area housing boards, headmen, pensioners, members of certain religious bodies, holders of an award from the Queen, or people registered as Individual, Peasant or Improved Farmers for two years prior to their application. The wife (or senior wife) of anyone qualifying to be a lower roll voter also qualified. The upper roll had a total of 37,142 voters, of which 27,893 were European, 7,321 were African and 1,928 were Asian. The lower roll had 91,941 voters, of which 91,913 were African and 28 Asian.

In order to vote, voters had to dip their thumbs in red ink, which would remain for two days. In Lusaka two European voters refused to dip their thumbs, and were barred from voting. One, Colin Cunningham, a former leader of the Rhodesian Republican Party, claimed it would be “trespass against his person.”

On election day, 14 of the upper roll seats and all 15 lower roll seats were decided, but only five of the 15 national seats; the UFP won 15 seats, UNIP 14 and the NRANC five. By-elections were subsequently held on 10 December for the Livingstone upper roll seats, and for the ten remaining national seats, with the UFP winning in Livingstone, and the NRANC winning the only two national roll seats to have a winner, leaving the UFP with a final total of 16 seats and the NRANC with seven.


  • Keith Harrop
  • Walter Herdzik

Northern Rhodesia: Legislative Council Election – T706

Northern Rhodesia

Legislative Council Election – T706


  • Date of Issue: September 1962
  • Dept: Legislative Council
  • Reqn.: T706
  • Printer: 
  • Paper:
  • Quantity: 52r


Northern Rhodesia: Legislative Council

Northern Rhodesia

Legislative Council

When Northern Rhodesia became a Protectorate under the British Empire on 1 April 1924, a Legislative Council was established on which the Governor of Northern Rhodesia sat ex officio as Presiding Officer.

The initial council consisted entirely of nominated members, as no procedure existed at the time for holding elections. However, the members were divided between the “official members” who held executive posts in the administration of the Protectorate, and the “unofficial members” who held no posts.


  • Walter Herdzik
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