Penhalonga Gold Mine – Penhalonga

Penhalonga Gold Mine



Penhalonga Gold Mine



The two earliest gold claims in the Umtali district were laid out in 1888 by British mining engineer James Henry Jeffreys.

Apparently, the district was then considered to be part of province of Manica in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique. Political astute, Jeffreys decided therefore to name the mining claims after officials from the Companhia de Moçambique, the company which possessed the trade concessions for Manica province (and other areas of the colony). The first gold claim was named Penhalonga, after Count Penhalonga, chairman of the Mozambique Company, and the second claim named for Baron de Rezende, the Mozambique Company’s Director of Operations on Africa.


J H Jeffreys

In 1890, the area was annexed by Cecil Rhodes’ “Pioneer Column”, an armed force representing the expansionist interests of the Rhodes’ British South Africa Company (BSAC). The BSAC representatives for the region (Archibald Ross Colquhoun and Frederick Courteney Selous) “got a concession” from Jeffreys in September, 1890, effectively taking control of the mining tracts in the name of Cecil Rhodes. Jeffreys however remained on at the mine, and played a major role in its development.

The Penhalonga Mine was officially opened in 1895. The mine closed in 1943.