Rhodesian Milling & Manufacturing Co., Ltd

Rhodesian Milling & Manufacturing Co Ltd

Bulawayo/Salisbury 

In 1915 Mark Harris established Mark Harris Manufacturing in what was then Salisbury, using the trade name Atlas. In 1920 he sold his shares to the British South Africa Company (now Anglo American Corporation). In 1924, the name was changed to The Rhodesian Milling and Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

The Bulawayo Mill was expanded in 1930 to accommodate greater production and had a railway running through the business. The mill also had its own laboratory to check on the quality of the product. The Salisbury plant was located on two acres with a railway track running by it, allowing 15 trucks to load. The Salisbury mill was devoted too maize production.

One of its most famous products was the ‘Gloria’ flour, was released in 1920. However, the company also handled farm produce, including ground nuts, or monkey nuts. The company also produced soaps including Rainbow and Reliance brand soaps.

In 1956 the Rhodesian Milling and Manufacturing Company purchased Harris Brothers & Co.

In 1975, the company merged with Palte Harris Industrial Holdings to form National Foods (part of the Innscor Africa Ltd group).

Cinderellas

Revenues

Reference

Contributors
  • James Gavin
  • Keith Harrop

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Matabeleland Native Labour Bureau

Matabeleland Native Labour Bureau

Bulawayo

 

During the early years of Rhodesia there was a shortage of labour. The Chamber of Mines set about to recruit labour to drive the growing industry.

The Matebeleland Native Labour Bureau began operations in July, 1899.

The Bulawayo chamber, unlike the Salisbury chamber, relied solely on Government support. It received a small capitation from the employer, but shared its expenses with the Government and Chamber.

 

References

  • Rhodes and Rhodesia: The White Conquest of Zimbabwe 1884-1902 – Arthur Keppel-Jones

Native Labour Bureau

Native Labour Bureau

Salisbury

 

During the early years of Rhodesia there was a shortage of labour. The Chamber of Mines set about to recruit labour to drive the growing industry.

The Salisbury chamber appointed a committee to operate the Native Labour Bureau and to build and run a compound to receive native African workers. The Bureau sent out African and collected a fee from the employer, thus providing revenue for the Bureau.

On 12th July, 1898, with approval from the Native Commissioner and some financial support from the government, the Bureau began operations. However, it could not keep up with demands until war slackened the economy.

 

References

  • Rhodes and Rhodesia: The White Conquest of Zimbabwe 1884-1902 – Arthur Keppel-Jones

Rhodesian Native Labour Bureau

Rhodesian Native Labour Bureau

Bulawayo

 

The Rhodesian Native Labour Bureau, based in Bulawayo, was a commercial body constituted under an Ordinance of 1906 and accepted by the High Commissioner and the Secretary of State for the Colonies. It’s purpose was the collecting and distributing of native labourers and for facilitating their travelling by providing blankets, accommodation and other facilities.

Native workers for North-Eastern Rhodesia were provided with 12 month contracts while workers from North-Western Rhodesia were provided with 6 month contracts with options to renew for another 3 months.

In 1908, the Bureau was plagued with accusations that they were diverting native workers from Rhodesian farms to the mines and therefore the farms were finding it difficult to obtain native labour. Native workers were free to work on farms, however, the higher rates of pay for mine work presented a better opportunity.

Late in 1910, the Bureau was suffering from financial difficulties (partly due to inherited debts). This resulted in the Bureau reforming as a Joint Stock Company with capital subscribed from England and additional funds from a compulsory labour tax on employees. This led to the introduction Labour Tax Ordinance of 1911.

By 1912 the Bureau had a range of agencies across Northern Rhodesia and by 1933 it had ceased operations.

Revenue

Coming soon!

References

1911 Labour Tax Ordinance

1911 Labour Tax Ordinance

 

The Labour Fees Ordinance, 1906 and the Labour Fees Amendment Ordinance, 1909 was originally imposed to collect a fee of 1/- per head on all native African workers in mines employing 25 or more native African workers. In addition to this, the Native Registration Ordinance, 1901 required all native African workers working in an urban area to register for a monthly pass with a 1/- stamp attached.

In 1911, the first draft of the Labour Tax Ordinance was drafted to repeal the 1906 and 1909 Ordinances. Its purpose was to collect a levy on all native African workers and to pass all the proceedings onto the Rhodesian Native Labour Bureau. The fee was 1/- per month per head.

The Labour Tax Ordinance was passed in December, 1911 and was due to be enacted on 1st January, 1912 but was delayed.

By 1914, after much resistance and refusal by hundreds of farmers to pay the levy, the Ordinance was repealed.

 

References

Department of Native Affairs

Department of Native Affairs

 

In 1894, after the Anglo-Ndebele war had come to an end, the British South Africa Company established the Native Affairs Department to be responsible for the welfare of black Africans living on tribal trust lands. 

The Head of the Department was as followed:

  • Administrator in Council.
    • Secretary for Native Affairs.
      • Two Chief Native Commissioners (Matabeleland and Mashonaland).
        • Chief Native Commissioners were Native Commissioners (tribal districts and sub-districts).
          • Assistant Native Commissioners. 

Throughout colonial Rhodesia, Native or District Commissioners were referred to as ‘Nkosi’.

On 1st October, 1894 , Herbert John Taylor (Natal) and Johan Colenbrander were appointed as Native Commissioners and by 1st May, 1895, Taylor became the Chief Native Commissioner.

In 1962 the Native Affairs Department was renamed the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Following the ranks of the Colonial Service, the Native Commissioners were renamed District Commissioners.

Revenue Cancellations

People

References

Revenue: Native Commissioner’s Office

Native Commissioner’s Office

 

Native Commissioner’s Officer – Charter District, Mashonaland
IssueValueEarliest UseLatest Use
Double Heads6d05.12.1914
Double Heads1/-14.03.1913
Double Heads2/-00.11.1913
Double Heads2/6d24.04.1913

Revenue: Hepsworths Limited

Hepsworths Limited

Salisbury

The Mark Friend Radio Co.

The Mark Friend Radio Co.

Bulawayo/Salisbury

Mark Friend Radio Co were an electrical and refrigeration business that began by selling radio and sound equipment.

Revenue

Contributors
  • James Gavin
  • Peter Gorton

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