First Flight Zimbabwe to Portugal
22 September 1981
22 September 1981
TAP (Transportes Aéreos Portugueses) Air Portugal is the flag carrier airline of Portugal, headquartered at Lisbon Airport which also serves as its hub. The airline, founded on 14 March 1945 began commercial services on 19 September 1946, with a flight from Lisbon to Madrid using a Douglas DC-3. On 31 December, TAP Air Portugal began its Linha Aérea Imperial, a twelve-stop colonial service including Luanda, Angola and Lourenço Marques (now Maputo), Mozambique.
Rhodesia’s Unilateral Declaration of Independence on 11 November 1965 and the subsequent imposition of sanctions imposed by Britain and independent African states, closed down almost all international flights operating through Rhodesia, with the exception of TAP and South African Airways.
In June 2015 the company was semi-privatised and became majority-owned by the Atlantic Gateway Consortium. The deal has been surrounded in controversy because it was completed at the end of the center-right government’s mandate with wide opposition from TAP employees. On October 2015, a new left-wing government has sought to return majority control of the airline to the state.
The Boys’ Brigade (BB) is an international interdenominational Christian youth organisation, conceived by Sir William Alexander Smith and Chester to combine drill and fun activities with Christian values. Following its inception in Glasgow in 1883 The Boys’ Brigade quickly spread across the United Kingdom, becoming a worldwide organisation by the early 1890s. As of 2018, there were 750,000 Boys’ Brigade members in 60 countries.
The Boys’ Brigade has branches in Malawi (est.1910), Zambia (est.1957) and Zimbabwe (est.1948).
The Republic of Zimbabwe, since the 11th century, has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence (UDI) as Rhodesia.
Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe’s authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe’s economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him “a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator”. The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way.
The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, and from which it withdrew in December 2003.
On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe’s rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country’s national army in a coup d’état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, which was won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa.
The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
1981 Butterflies of Southern Africa
1989 Butterflies and Flowers of Zimbabwe
1988 Some Endangered Species of Zimbabwe
The Buluwayo Board of Executors & Trust Co Ltd was one of the oldest businesses in Rhodesia, being established c.1894.
The African Life Assurance Society Ltd was established by Isidore Williem Schlesinger at the end of 1904 with the £20,000 he had earned from the development of the suburb of Parkhurst, Gauteng, South Africa. During its first year in business, the company sold 2,274 policies worth £1 million, a record for a new business in the industry at the time.
In 1905, he bought the financially struggling Robinson South African Bank (founded by J.B. Robinson) and converted it into the Colonial Banking and Trust Company, which specialised in small business loans. In 1911, he founded the African Guarantee and Indemnity Corporation to provide all types of insurance.
The company had branches and agencies in the Union as well as in Khartoum, Assouan, Syria, Cairo and Alexandria. In 1912 it expanded its operations to Natal and amazement was expressed at the large volumes of new business that it generated. By 1925, the business was one of the four dominant insurance companies in South Africa.
African Life is now part of the SANLAM group.
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