- James Gavin
- Walter Herdzik
The London and Rhodesian Mining & Land Co Ltd (Lonrho) was incorporated in 1909. The business began in Rhodesia as mainly a mining and agricultural business. By the 1960’s the company was struggling.
In 1961, Roland Rowlands took on a strategy to transform the company into a worldwide conglomerate. His introduction was introduced to Lonrho through the Honorable Angus Ogilvy, husband to Queen Elizabeth’s cousin, Princess Alexandra, and the director of the company. Ogilvy recruited Rowland, convinced that the 44-year-old mining consultant could turn around the company’s struggles.
Once named a managing director, Rowland moved quickly to expand the company’s interests, using his own portfolio of African holdings as a map for Lonrho’s expansion and diversification. The company’s involvement in mining and ranching was deepened, and forays into automobile and oil distribution were made. Concurrently, the geographic scope of the company was widened considerably until it embraced nearly all of the African continent. Expansion took Lonrho out of Rhodesia, north of the Limpopo River, and into neighboring Malawi, Zambia, Kenya, Zaire, and Tanzania, transforming the company into an African conglomerate without rival.
In 1998, the company split it’s mining activities into Lomin.
Scanlen & Holderness, was founded by Sir Thomas Scanlen (b.1834). Scanlen first set foot in Rhodesia in September 1894. For the previous twenty years he had been one of the most prominent personalities in the Cape. He had been a Member of Parliament from 1870 to 1895 and a Cabinet Minister for much of that time. He had been Prime Minister of the Cape from 1881 to 1884 and then the leader of the opposition for five years after stepping down as Premier.
During Scanlen’s premiership, a cabinet reshuffle took place bringing Cecil John Rhodes into Scanlen’s Ministry, as Treasurer. This event created the link, which eventually brought Scanlen up to Rhodesia in August 1894. In 1894 Rhodes offered Sir Thomas the appointment of Chief Legal Officer in Rhodesia. He was made Legal Advisor to the British South Africa Company and started his own legal firm.
The firm of Scanlen and Syfret commenced business in Salisbury in October 1894. Sir Thomas was only admitted as an attorney in Rhodesia on 5 November 1894, at the first High Court Session to be held in Salisbury presided over by Judge Joseph Vincent. Sir Thomas took up full time involvement with the Chartered Company in 1898, his son, Arthur Dennison Scanlen, who had completed his law degree at Oxford University, joined his father’s firm.
James Edmund Holderness was taken on by Arthur Scanlen as a professional assistant on 1 January 1906. He had served articles with Frames and Coghlan in Bulawayo. In 1907, Holderness was invited to join Arthur Scanlen in the partnership at which time the name Scanlen & Holderness became the style under which the practice practiced.
In 1908 Sir Thomas became seriously ill with malaria and eventually passed away in Salisbury on May 15th 1912. Scanlen & Holderness carried forward the business from 1908 until the death of Arthur in 1936. Equal shares in the partnership were only achieved in 1928.
Holderness ran the firm solo until he was later joined by Rhodes Scholar, Pat Lewis, whose father had been Chief Justice and whose father was to be a Judge of Appeals, and Hardwicke Holderness and Pat Lewis. Pat and Hardwicke were to be the foundation upon which was built the next half century of legal service and practice by Scanlen & Holderness.
The practice continues today in Zimbabwe.
Pumula (Phumula) Mission, begun 1955 approximately 65 miles west of Tsholotsho, Matabeleland North Province, was the last of the missions established by Brethren in Christ Church (BICC) in Southern Rhodesia. The mission came about due to the forced movement of Chief Siphoso Dlodlo and his peoples to the Gwaai S.N.A. (Special Native Area)(Tribal Trust Land) under the Land Apportionment Act. BICC followed and were granted a site to set up the Pumula Mission.
The Pumula (Phumula) Mission Hospital was opened in 1959. As of 1970, the hospital served about 3,350 inpatients and offered 6,750 outpatient treatments per year. It was equipped with 36 beds, maternity ward, rudimentary laboratory and an outpatient clinic. An x-ray center was added in 2013 to allow the hospital to better screen patients for tuberculosis. Zimwatuga Primary School is located on/or near the mission.
BICC missionaries to Pumula include Frederic L. Holland (helped to found the mission), Dr. R. Virginia Kauffman (left in 1973), Donna L. Sollenberger, and Rev. and Mrs. Kenneth A. Bulgrien.
Medical work began at Mount Selinda in the mission’s first year with the opening of a dispensary by Dr. W. L Thompson in 1893. It was the first permanent missionary medical mission staffed by a medical doctor in Southern Rhodesia. The dispensary became a full-fledged hospital in 1912. Dr. Willis H. Willis, who succeeded Dr. Thompson, began a three-year training course for African nurses in 1930 with seven initial nursing students.
In the mid-1930’s, the hospital received a generous gift from Dr. Willis F. Pierce which made possible a much needed addition to hospital. It was renamed the “William F. Pierce Memorial Hospital” in his honor. Between 1930 and 1936, in-patients treated as the hospital grew from 96 to 858, including 57 surgical operations. There were another 1,689 out patients in that year.
In addition to Doctors Thompson and Willis, other missionary medical staff includes Dr. William T. Lawrence (served at both Mount Selinda and Chikore); Minnie A. Tontz (later Mrs. Lawrence, nurse); Gertrude H. Merrill (nurse); Theresa R. Buck, R.N., (at both Mount Selinda and Chikore); Dr. Victor Master (1948-51); Dr. Kirk Stetson (1956-73); Dr. Donaldson (1958-61); Dr. Alma Cooke (1958-61); Dr. Almarose Cooke (later Mrs. Gordon Wordon); and Dr. Selwyn Spray (deported in 1976 for aiding “African Freedom Fighters”). The first African doctor joined the hospital in 1982.
Today, Mount Selinda’s medical facilities consist of the Mount Selinda Hospital and School of Nursing.
|No.s||Description||Earliest PMK Date|
|N/A||Unique Photo of Main Fall Taken Hanging from Rope 150 feet down.||27/12/1968|
Mount Selinda Institute
Beginning in 1931, the Mount Selinda Training and Practicing School, consisting of the industrial and agricultural departments, teacher training and “practicing school” (primary school and kindergarten) became known as “Mount Selinda Institute.” The name has also, at times, been used to describe the mission as a whole.
Samuel J. Curtis was principal until 1939. He was succeeded by Frank T. Meacham. William H. Reedy was Principal as of 1958. Other missionaries joining the staff include Evelyn Lyman, Lois A Bergdolt, Mr. and Mrs. Eric Dahle (teacher training) and F. Keith Schwyhart.
By 1958, the Institute had 500 students in the primary school, teachers’ training, and 3-year courses in building construction and carpentry. Secondary education was introduced in the mid to late -1960’s.
Today, under the direction of United Church of Christ in Zimbabwe (UCCZ), Mt. Selinda is the site of the Mount Selinda High School (secondary school with boarding facilities for boys and girls) and Mount Selinda primary school.
St. John Ambulance is the name of over 40 affiliated international organisations which teach and provide first aid and emergency medicine and are primarily staffed by over 500,000 volunteers worldwide. The associations are overseen by the international Order of St John and its priories (national branches).
The first such organisation to be founded was the St John Ambulance Association, which was founded in 1877 in England. Its first uniformed first-aiders were founded in 1887 as the St John Ambulance Brigade.
The Order of St John’s logo contains the eight-pointed Maltese Cross as the essential identifier. Like the Order, St John Ambulance associations accept members of all religions. Their geographic organisation differs from the Order, and they have to contend with the differing national laws, medical practices and cultures of countries. As a result, the role and organisation of St John Ambulance varies by country.
The first St John Centre in Zimbabwe was established in 1925 to teach first aid to railway staff in Bulawayo. In 1950, Sir John Kennedy, Governor of Southern Rhodesia, laid the foundation stone of the headquarters building in King’s Crescent, Salisbury. The Commandery was declared constituted on May 7th 1952. Not soon after, St John Ambulance Zambia began its work in Zambia.
In 1962 under the Trustees Incorporation Act of Malawi, St John Malawi was registered as a non-profit trust. It is a member of the Non-Governmental organisations in Malawi. The headquarters of St John Malawi is in Limbe, on the outskirts of Blantyre.
R. Chitrin & Co. was established by Chaim Raphael Chitrin (1867-1933). Chitrin was a Jewish Russian who arrived in Rhodesia c.1908. He began as an independent merchant and by 1911 appears to have been trading as Chitrin & Treger in Shangani.
Chitrin’s daughter, Rebecca, was married to Morris Treger who would go on to establish Monarch Steel. Chitrin established R. Chitrin & Co. in Bulawayo.
In 2006, the company was acquired by Red Star Wholesalers Limited. On 30th September, 2011, the company entered voluntary administration.
The Wesleyan Methodist Church, currently known as “The Methodist Church of Great Britain,” is a mainline Protestant denomination and “mother church” to Methodists worldwide. Methodism originated through the work of John Wesley and his brother Charles in the 1700’s. Following John Wesley’s death in 1793, the revival movement separated from the Church of England to become a separate church. The word “Wesleyan” was added to its name to differentiate it from the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists and the Primitive Methodist movement, which separated from the Wesleyans in 1807.
From the beginning, the church had a strong missionary character. The first Methodist missionaries to Southern Rhodesia were Reverend Owen Watkins and Isaac Shimmin with the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society (WMMS). Accompanied by native Teaching-Evangelists, they arrived at Fort Salisbury from their base in South Africa on September 29, 1891, a year after its occupation by Cecil Rhodes’ “pioneer Column.” Rhodes granted them concessions for three farms that were used to found Epworth and Nenguwo (later Waddilove) missions. In 1895, the Methodist “Rhodesia District” was separated from the Transvaal, reporting to the British Conference.
In 1932, the Wesleyan Methodist re-united with the Primitive Methodist and the United Methodist Churches to form the Methodist Church of Great Britain. As a consequence of the union, WMMS and the foreign missions of the Primitive Methodist and the United Methodist Churches merged to form the Methodist Missionary Society (MMS).
Local autonomy was granted to the church from Great Britain in 1977, including mission properties, eventually becoming the present “Methodist Church in Zimbabwe” (MCZ). MCZ became its own conference in 1997. Today it oversees 250 full-time ministers and a Methodist community of close to 200,000 members.