National War Fund of Southern Rhodesia
Type I – You Can’t Give Too Much
- Date of Issue: 1941
Type I – You Can’t Give Too Much
Air Raid Distress Fund
Between 1940-41 money poured into the Air Raid Distress Fund. In 1941, £60,000 was sent to Britain with some of the money earmarked to for the purchase of sixteen canteens for various cities. By February, 1942, £82,000 had been sent.
Zambia Regiment – 1st Battalion Zambia Regiment
When Northern Rhodesia achieved independence in 1964, the Northern Rhodesia 1st Battalion Regiment became the 1st Battalion Zambia Regiment. The flash remained the same as it was during the Federation period except for the addition of the word ‘Zambia.’
AFRAF was Rhodesia’s first services newspaper. It was conceived aboard a ship returning from Europe during World War II. The newspaper, produced at camp Heaney, was produced for the whole command at Heaney.
The first edition was released on 7th August, 1941 and priced at 3p. The editors, John K. Tither and Alan Brian Chalkley, both had journalistic experience. Within a week of release, the newspaper reached a peak of 2,300 copies.
In December 1979, the Commonwealth Ceasefire Monitoring Force (CMF) was established by the Commonwealth to supervise the implementation of the Lancaster House Agreement between the government of Southern Rhodesia and the guerilla forces of the Patriotic Front.
Under the agreement UK authority was restored over its rebellious colony and a ceasefire implemented. A general election followed and independence was achieved by the new Republic of Zimbabwe. The role of the multi-national force was to keep the peace between 22,000 guerrillas and the Rhodesian forces during the cease-fire run-up to the 1980 elections.
The CMF was tasked with monitoring the agreement and resembled a UN observer mission except that its duties were more extensive, it enjoyed municipal backing.
The Zezani Mission was Assembly Point Juliet during the Bush War.
On 6th January, 1978 the mission was attacked by the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA). Pastor A.B.C Siwela reported the army stole telephones, cut wires and smashed windows of the clinic, stealing medical supplies. The mission was eventually ordered to close as it was frequently visited by the European-led army from a nearby camp and the safety of the mission workers could be guaranteed.
During the Lancaster House Conference, one of the agreements was to create assembly points throughout Rhodesia to house guerillas and initiate a demobilising exercise. The Assembly Points were the concentration points for all guerilla groups. Each was to be manned by a small contingent of Commonwealth monitoring forces.
All the Zimbabwean National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) guerillas were to go to the closest assembly point. Between 28th December, 1979 and 4th January, 1980 more than 25 000 patriotic forces marched into the 16 assembly points.
At the same time, Rhodesian soldiers began to concentrate at 40 different bases spread all over the country. The Rhodesian troop locations were mainly in the centre of the country, but with some right on the borders. Thus the guerillas in their assembly points would be sandwiched between Rhodesian forces and cut off from their escape route to Mozambique or Zambia if attacked.
Once in the assembly points, all guerillas were required to register their names, weapons and the weapons serial numbers. Within assembly points were daily counts of the Patriotic Front forces.
Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZPRA/ZIPRA) was the armed wing of the Zimbabwe African People’s Union, a Marxist–Leninist political party in Rhodesia. It participated in the Rhodesian Bush War against the Rhodesian government. ZIPRA was formed during the 1960’s by the nationalist leader Jason Moyo, the deputy of Joshua Nkomo.
Because ZAPU’s political strategy relied more heavily on negotiations than armed force, ZIPRA developed as elaborately training both regular soldiers and guerrilla fighters, although by 1979 it had an estimated 20,000 combatants, based in camps around Lusaka, Zambia and at the front.
ZIPRA’s crossing points into Zimbabwe were at Feira in Zambia opposite Mashonaland East and west. For example, the operational boundary was Sipolilo where ZIPRA, Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and Rhodesian forces clashed. ZIPRA operated alone in Mashonaland west. There was no ZANLA combatants in that area until the later stages of the war.
Beside the overall political ideologies, the main differences between ZIPRA and ZANLA were that:
ZIPRA was in formal alliance with Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) the ANC’s militant wing. ZIPRA and MK mounted a celebrated, if strategically unsuccessful, raid into Rhodesia in the mid-1960s. The incursion was stopped by Rhodesian Security Forces, working in concert with the South African Police.
In 1978 and 1979 ZIPRA downed two civilian passenger planes of Air Rhodesia, killing a total of 102 passengers and crew. Air Rhodesia Flight 825 was a scheduled flight from Kariba to Salisbury that was shot down on 3rd September, 1978 by ZIPRA guerrillas using an SA-7 surface-to-air missile. ZIPRA leader Joshua Nkomo publicly claimed responsibility for shooting down the Hunyani on BBC television the same evening, saying the aircraft had been used for military purposes, but denied that his men had killed survivors on the ground.
Eighteen of the fifty-six passengers in the Air Rhodesia plane survived the crash, with most of these having been seated in the rear. Three crash survivors who remained at the aircraft managed to avoid being killed by running away and hiding in the bush. Five months later a second plane, Air Rhodesia Flight 827, was shot down by ZIPRA.
Romeo Assembly Point was located at Magurekure Primary School, Makonde in the Sinoia District. It was the second largest concentration of ZIPRA forces during ceasefire.
Beit Bridge Group Unit