1890 – Mashonaland Mining Regulation No.1

Mashonaland Mining Regulation No.1

The Mashonaland Mining Regulation No.1 (1890) was designed to promote the rapid development of gold mining by large companies while ensuring the maximum benefit of the British South Africa Company.

By October, 1890 nearly 300 men had begun prospecting in the country surrounding Fort Victoria, Fort Charter, and Fort Salisbury. 465 claims to gold had been claimed and shaft-sinking had commenced. However, bad weather, lack of food and disease impeded the efforts and it was not until 1891 that proper mining was possible.

Further to the their troubles, the amount of gold did not live up to their expectations and many reefs had already been mined by ancient Native Africans. This caused major set backs for the British South Africa Company who was expecting 50% return on minerals found. The outcome caused an economic depression.

By 1892 only two companies had been floated. In 1893, four companies were floated. Meanwhile, the British South Africa Company was sinking in debt.

Eventually, the Mining and Minerals Ordinance 1895 established the first regular system of mining.


  • Rhodes, Rhodesia and the Rand – I. R. Phimister